Friday, June 29, 2012

Your Weekend: Braving Big Bend

It’s summertime—pack up your bags, your friends, your kids, or your dog and load up the mini-van for a summer vacation you’ll never forget. It’s time to use those vacation days you’ve been saving up, and enjoy one of the most beautiful natural sites in America.

Located in the tip of southwest Texas, Big Bend National Park is highly underestimated. It is an area of Texas so unlike any other, and America’s last frontier wilderness. With over 800,000 acres, the park ranges from mountainous terrain to flat dessert plains, featuring cool rivers and abundant forests. There is a wide variety of wildlife as well—including birds, butterflies, and black bears.

Enjoying Big Bend (Texas A&M University Press, 2009) by Gary and Kathy Adams Clark, ensures there is an adventure for everyone at Big Bend. If you only have a couple hours, a couple days, or a week’s stay at the park, the Clarks have included detailed adventures and sights for you.

Kathy Clark has introduced us to her favorite location with the best views, and has included her own photograph as well:
"My favorite place in Big Bend National Park is the Window View at sunset.  The Window View is a notch in the mountains that looks west if you're standing in The Basin high in the Chisos Mountains.  The sun sets through the Window all year.  In the summer it is really spectacular because there is dust in the air that refracts the light.  The oranges and reds are really intense.  Sometimes there are summer thunder clouds out in the desert and that's special.  If the thunder clouds create a storm with lightning, it's really special."    

Instead of going to your neighborhood chlorinated pool or watching re-runs of the Bachelor this weekend, follow these instructions and experience the lure of Big Bend National Park.

What: Walk the Chisos Basin Loop Trail located in Big Bend.

Location: Start and end at the Chisos Basin Trailhead.

Getting There: The trail is 1.6 miles on foot, and will take roughly 1-2 hours to complete.

About Chisos Basin Loop Trail: This trail is a simpler way to enjoy the flora and fauna of Big Bend without the strain of hiking uphill. You will be able to see a wider picture of the whole park and enjoy it at an easy pace.

What You'll See: You will be able to enjoy the various species of trees that cover the surface of the mountain, Casa Grande, as well as the potential to see wildlife across the trails. There are beautiful birds, butterflies, and various wildflowers unlike any others seen in Texas. Clark recommends keeping an eye out for the different types of grass growing along the trail--lechuguilla, stool, Harvard agave, and bear grass. There will also be plenty of scat, or animal poop, left behind by deer, fox, and rabbits that may have been left during the night.

The Clarks Recommend: “Carry binoculars to watch birds, butterflies, and other creatures. Bring your camera or sketch pad to record sights.” Clark also suggests starting the trail during the early morning or late afternoon for a chance at the best sights. Drinking lots of water and wearing a hat and good hiking shoes are a must during hot weather.

While You're At It: Clark has included follow-ups to this adventure if you’re still hungry for more. Pinnacles Trail, Laguna Meadow Trail, Southwest Rim Trail, or Lost Mine Trail are a few other walking trails located in Big Bend.

Order Enjoying Big Bend National Park today for the best guide to exploring the park, including one color map and 57 color photos capturing the park’s beauty.

TELL TAMU PRESS: Have you ever been to Big Bend National Park? Tell us about your favorite adventure. 

By: Madeline Loving

Thursday, June 28, 2012

Did Davy Crockett Die on the Ramparts of the Alamo? New Book Revives Debate

More than 30 years ago, historian Dan Kilgore and Texas A&M University Press ignited international controversy with the book How Did Davy Die?  -- asserting that Davy Crockett did not die on the ramparts of the Alamo swinging the shattered remains of his rifle “Old Betsy.”
Instead, Kilgore pointed to historical sources, stating Mexican forces took Crockett captive and then executed him on Santa Anna’s order.  
Intense debate followed. The London Daily Mail associated Kilgore with “ the murder of a myth,” and he became the subject of articles in Texas Monthly and the Wall Street Journal. Some who considered his historical argument an affront to a treasured American icon delivered personal insults and threats of violence.
In the 1955 Disney movie Davy Crockett: King of the Wild Frontier, Fess Parker famously depicts Crockett as a hero of the Alamo. Check out the song here:
Now  a new book lauded by True West Magazine as “the most comprehensive account” of events leading up to the Alamo siege as well as what likely happened during the battle has revived debate over the details surrounding Crockett’s death -- this time in the pages of Texas Monthly.
In the main narrative of his book, Blood of Heroes: The 13-Day Struggle for the Alamo -- and the Sacrifice That Forged a Nation Donovan writes that Crockett died “in the open air, as he wished,” but in his notes he concludes that the frontiersman “may have been executed after the battle, but until stronger evidence is presented, let history show that he died fighting with his comrades.”
In this month's issue of Texas Monthly, James E. Crisp, co-author of the commemorative edition of Kilgore’s original book, entitled How Did Davy Die? And Why Do We Care So Much? (TAMU Press, 2010), responded in a letter to the magazine’s May 2012 article on Donovan and his book.  
“ . . . Donovan, who dismisses José Enrique de la Peña’s account of the death of David Crockett while still praising the Mexican officer as ‘an astute observer’ of the Texas Revolution, might have taken de la Peña’s account more seriously had he read the revised 1997 English-language edition of the officer’s memoir instead of the rather flawed and incomplete 1975 first edition (both editions are from Texas A&M University Press),” Crisp writes. Crisp --  who wrote the more recent edition’s introduction -- and the late Kilgore point to the Mexican officer’s accounting of the events surrounding Crockett’s death as supporting the assertion that Crockett was executed by Mexican forces.
In his letter Crisp also refutes Donovan’s statement in the article that the description of Crockett’s death appears “in a different hand -- on a slip of paper that was inserted into the original manuscript.”
“In fact,” says Crisp, “the entire de la Pena memoir is written in a different hand -- four or five different hands -- at a time when correspondence between de la Pena and Mexican government officials shows us that the imprisoned officer was so ill that he could not even write his own name.”
Crisp goes on to suggest as further evidence a letter published in a Detroit newspaper in 1836 and unearthed by a Rice University grad student in 1960. The letter was the subject of an article Crisp published on the subject of Crockett’s death in an issue of the Journal of the West, a respected historical publication.
In an editorial note, Donovan responds that he is aware of the letter, which is “only marginally more convincing than the other alleged sources supporting Crockett’s execution.”
Donovan writes that he consulted the 1975 translation of the de la Peña memoir as well as the Spanish-language original.
“The method of Crockett’s death is the subject of the longest endnote in my book, in which I analyze the sources used to support the execution theory. I stand by my opinion -- that Crockett may have been executed after the battle, but it’s doubtful, and there is certainly not enough reliable evidence to write it as history," says Donovan.

Who do you think is right?

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

"It's Gene Autry!" National, Texas Parks Advocate George Bristol Shares His Favorite State Park Memory

George Bristol, author of On Politics and Parks (Texas A&M University Press, 2012), is known for his love of nature and his successful political career. Bristol’s passion for national parks and the great outdoors led to his involvement in the National Park Foundation and National Park Service. After spearheading efforts to elevate the image of the National Park Service and helping to establish a successful fundraising strategy for the NPF, Bristol carried his ideas over to his home state of Texas. His efforts played an important role in the Texas Legislature's 2007 vote to double the operating budget for state parks.

Bristol has received several awards, including the 2009 Pugsley Medal, honoring champions of parks and conservation and a leadership award from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. On Politics and Parks offers intriguing peeks at behind-the-scenes events in Washington, Austin and elsewhere, as well as a captivating personal memoir.

TAMU Press: What was your inspiration for writing a memoir? 

George Bristol: The inspiration for the book really came from three sources:

1. My mother, Lottie Bristol, was a devoted outdoors person. After my father's death in 1946, even in those times when we didn't have a car, she made sure we got out to natural and historic sites around Texas. Many were state parks and historic sites.

Later, when the opportunity came for me to work in Glacier National Park, she had no hesitancy of putting me on a train to parts unknown so that I could experience, in depth, the awesome wonders of that crown jewel among America's Best Idea.

2. Following the discovery of my father's billfold that was in his possession at the time of his death, I felt compelled to relate my memories surrounding its contents. This led toward other avenues of memories and history that I wanted to share with my family, particularly with my grandchildren who would not otherwise have written knowledge of our families and the times they shared.

3. Dick and Joanne Bartlett of Dallas and Fort Davis set up a wonder writer-in-residence program in the Davis Mountains. I was able to spend two months there in splendid isolation, pulling all the separate parts of my most interesting life together, until I had fashioned a work, to my satisfaction, of how I got to the purpose of my life work: park and conservation advocacy. 

TAMU Press: What is your favorite memory or park experience? 

 GB: After my father's death in 1946 we lived in Beeville, Texas, a small South Texas town. True to form my mother took us to nearby Goliad to the state park and historic sites. After

touring the fort and mission we were walking toward the parking lot, when we spied a tall figure in full movie cowboy regalia.

We thought it was our hero, Gene Autry. We ran toward the man, yelling, "It's Gene Autry! It's Gene!" We threw our arms around his legs and continue to exclaim that it was Gene. He laughed and then gently bent over and explained that he was not Gene Autry, but rather Monte Hale, a good friend of Autry's and a fellow cowboy star.

That was good enough for us. Forty years later I would have Monte Hale confirm that story to family and friends in the pretense of.........Gene Autry.

By: Madeline Loving

Monday, June 25, 2012

ABA Awards Author Ludlow Griscom Award

The American Birding Association has awarded Mark Lockwood, co-author of The TOS Handbook of Texas Birds, its prestigious Ludlow Griscom Award for Outstanding Contributions in Regional Ornithology.
Help us celebrate this honor by taking 60% off the price of the paperback edition of this book (Retail: $24.95). Use promo code 60off when checking out at

The Ludlow Griscom award is one of five awards given annually by the ABA to individuals dedicated to educating the public about birds and birding. According to the ABA website, the Ludlow Griscom Award is given to those who have "dramatically advanced the state of ornithological knowledge for a particular region. This may be through their long-time contributions in monitoring avian status and distribution, facilitating the publication of state bird books, breeding bird atlases and significant papers on the regional natural history of birds. This may also be through the force of their personality, teaching and inspiration.” Mark Lockwood did all of these for birds and birding in Texas. 

Lockwood is the former longtime secretary of the TOS Texas Bird Records Committee; editor of the Texas regional report for North American Birds; the author, co-author, or editor of six books; and a biologist at Texas Parks and Wildlife.

The TOS Handbook of Texas Birds, co-authored by Brush Freeman is a necessary companion for any bird-watching enthusiast. Its research covers the span of almost three decades, based on the work of the Texas Bird Records Committee. It includes 623 different species of birds, with thorough descriptions, maps and 140 color photographs. 

By: Madeline Loving

Friday, June 22, 2012

Your Weekend: Gangsters in Texas?

Their journey began in 1930 after meeting at a mutual friends’ house. Bonnie was a café waitress just coming out of an abusive marriage, and Clyde was a school dropout who had just begun stealing cars and burglarizing houses. The two lovers were inseparable after that, and thus began their four year reign of terror.

Until their deaths in 1934, Bonnie and Clyde's crime spree took them across Texas, where they stole cars, robbed banks, murdered officers, broke out of prisons, and cheated death multiple times. The fugitive couple survived gunshot wounds, car crashes, and malnourishment, and Bonnie survived a car crash with gasoline burns and cuts to the bone that left her unable to walk without the support of a cane.
They became notorious; other men joined the criminal-couple including Clyde’s brother, Buck Barrow, forming the Barrow Gang.   The Barrow Gang slowly unraveled; with most of the gang getting caught and sent to years in prison. Bonnie and Clyde were not so easy to catch.
Here T. Lindsay Baker, author of Gangster Tour of Texas, shares his favorite historic crime scene, starring none other than Bonnie and Clyde -- the scene of the shooting at Lillian McBride's house in Dallas.

"It was here that around midnight on Jan. 6, 1933, Clyde Barrow stumbled into a lawmen's stakeout for another criminal, "said Baker. "He wanted to check with robber Raymond Hamilton's sister, Lillian McBride, to determine whether a radio with hidden hacksaw blades had been delivered to Raymond in the Hillsboro jail."
When Barrow approached the door to the house, he discovered lawmen inside, fired a shot into a window from a sawed-off shotgun hidden under his overcoat and then shot to death Deputy Sheriff Malcolm Davis when he ran around the house from the rear.

Barrow then ran around the house and a block and a half down an alley to meet up with Bonnie Parker at the wheel of an automobile to escape from the scene of the murder.
"The crime scene is pristine, looking today almost identical to the way that it appears in contemprary crime scene photographs," said Baker.
Crime Scene:
3111 North Winnetka Avenue (formerly 507 County Avenue), Dallas
West Dallas, just off Singleton Boulevard (formerly Eagle Ford Road).
Getting There:
Leave Interstate 30 at exit 44A and drive north 0.8 miles on Sylvan Avenue (crossing Fort Worth Avenue and West Commerce Street) to Singleton Boulevard. Turn west on Singleton and proceed four blocks to the intersection with Winnetka Avenue. Turn north (right) on Winnetka Avenue and drive a block and a half to the house, which stands on the west side of the street next to a red-brick Methodist church. The single-story wood dwelling with a porch across the front is painted white.
What You'll See:
The well-preserved former residence of Lillian McBride in West Dallas, where Clyde Barrow walked into an ambush planned for another criminal and subsequently killed Dallas deputy sheriff Malcolm Davis.
By: Madeline Loving

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

What is AAUP? And Why Do We Care So Much?

This week, staff members of Texas A&M University Press are in Chicago attending the Association of American University Presses Annual Meeting. The Annual Meeting of the Association of American University Presses predates the founding of AAUP itself. The seeds of the Association were planted during informal conversations between university press representatives who attended the yearly meetings of the National Association of Book Publishers in New York City throughout the 1920s. These informal conversations gradually became longer and more formal, with agendas, invited attendees, and minutes. In 1928, a group of university presses finally set up their own separate meeting, reserving rooms at the nearby Waldorf-Astoria.
A growing (though still unaffiliated) group of university presses continued to meet in New York annually. At the 1937 meeting, they formed the Association we still know today—and meetings continued under the new rubric of AAUP.  New York City continued as the annual meeting home until 1946, when Chicago took on hosting duties—a city it seems appropriate to return to in 2012.

The 1978 annual meeting in Baltimore was a milestone. Held during the "University Press Week" declared by US President Jimmy Carter, the meeting celebrated 100 years of university press publishing in the United States at our host press Johns Hopkins. The year also marked 500 years of university presses globally with the anniversary of the first volume printed in Oxford.

Perhaps the most memorable meeting of the past decade took place in New Orleans in 2006. Less than a year after Katrina, while there was some unease felt about holding a conference in a city where services were so strained, there had also been no doubt as to the Association's commitment to the city—to bear witness, in a way, but also to provide even the small economic boost of a meeting such as ours. AAUP will return to New Orleans in 2014.

Of course, in 1987 and today, we are still following the path laid down by AAUP's founders who, in 1936, discussed institutional relationships between libraries and university presses. The AAUP Program Committee shapes our annual meeting each year, putting together conference agendas on the most pertinent topics and pressing professional needs in scholarly communications. It is fitting to close with the words of the AAUP 2012 committee, who constructed a program addressing "the volatility of our industry, as well as our collective reliance on foundational skills and disciplines that have endured for decades. This year, 75 flames flicker on the candles of AAUP's birthday cake. Watch them and reflect on the past. Then watch them kindle the future."
By: Paige Bukowski

Friday, June 15, 2012

Your Weekend: Paddling Houston?

So, maybe it's never crossed your mind: Houston as prime canoeing and kayaking territory? Think again.

Within about 75 miles of downtown Houston, some 1,500 miles of rivers, creeks, lakes, bayous, and bays await discovery. Beware of alligators!

Here, avid paddler and author of Canoeing and Kayaking Houston Waterways (Texas A&M University Press, 2012) Natalie Wiest shares her all-time favorite weekend trek: a peaceful trip through cypress- and duckweed-canvassed, almost non-moving, clear swamp waters.

"It's a very special, quiet place," says Wiest. "Depending on the time of year, there are all kinds of wonderful birds back here, and it never looks the same from one season to the next."

Location: Cedar Hill Park, 30 miles east of Houston, near Anahuac and Liberty

Getting There: Travel Interstate 10 about 30 miles east of Houston and take Exit 810 (Anahuac, Liberty, FM 563). Follow FM 563 north about 2.8 miles. Turn left (west) on Lake Charlotte Road, which is well marked. In another 1.1 miles, the entrance to the park is on your left.

Traveling Note: There is no sign marking the entrance, but a good landmark is the Sherman Cemetery, which is directly across from the park entrance. If you pass it, you will have to make a sharp right-hand turn and then turn around. Drive down the park entrance road until you can see the water. This park has nice picnic facilities, pit toilets, and plenty of parking for a day on the water.

About Lake Charlotte: Lake Charlotte is the largest of a complex of at least four lakes that lie to the east of the Trinity River in Chambers County, just north of I-10. Although it is only 30 miles from downtown Houston, the largest westernmost cypress swamp in Texas seems a universe away.

What You'll See: The area teems with wildlife. Summer visitors can be rewarded with the sight of hundreds of shorebirds feeding on the shallow lake bottom. Winter avian visitors include many migratory species. Beavers and alligators live along Lake Pass. Paddlers on a recent Houston Canoe Club trip saw a herd of wild hogs. White ibises, night herons, and many other birds nest in the area. Large wasp nests are found here, too, some at head or paddle height, so keep your eyes open! Snakes of many varieties sun themselves on shrubs or hang out on branches to watch for prey below.

Wiest Recommends: Taking along a good map, compass, or a GPS. "Once you are back in the lakes and swamps of this area, it is easy to get turned around and lose your bearings," says Weist.

While You're At It: Also explore Mac Bayou and Mac Lake (west of Cedar Hill Park; Mud Lake (due south of Cedar Hill Park); Miller Lake (southernmost of the Lake Charlotte Complex); and/or Lake Pass (at Miller Lake's northwestern corner);

Look for Canoeing and Kayaking Houston's Waterways in early fall for more author tips, trip outlines, water safety, gear checklists, and more.

TELL TAMU PRESS: What is your favorite Texas kayaking/canoeing spot, and why would you recommend it to others?

Comment for a chance to win a free copy of Kayaking the Texas Coast, by John Whorff.

Watch next week for our new series Weekends with Texas A&M University Press books, our book-inspired and staff-curated bucket list for unique ways to spend your summer down-time!

Thursday, June 14, 2012

Taking the Plunge: Texas A&M-Galveston Turns 50

Did you know Texas A&M University at Galveston was designated a special purpose institution in 1971, in part to fulfill the Sea Grant mission of Texas A&M University? The campus, however, officially opened as the Texas Maritime Academy in 1962, with students studying aboard the Texas Clipper -- then, a rehabbed World War II attack transport vessel. 

This year also marks the 40th anniversary of the Texas Sea Grant College Program housed at Texas A&M.

What does a sea grant do? It accomplishes many things, primarily focusing on areas in outreach, research and education. In the past, TXSG has participated in research on pollution, endangered sea turtles, hurricanes and costal development. It also began the predecessor to the Texas Adopt-A-Beach Program. By funding and housing TXSG, Texas A&M contributes to helping Texans learn more about their beaches through research and education.

In his book Aggies by the Sea (Texas A&M University Press, 2005), Texas A&M University at Galveston historian Stephen Curley offers a unique, historical record of the sea grant campus's humble beginnings. The campus now enrolls more than 1,600 students.

Curley is also author of the definitive history of the Texas Clipper, The Ship That Would Not Die (Texas A&M University Press, 2011). The Clipper was a ship with many lives; from its service as an attack transport used in World War II, to a trading ship for the American Export Lines, to a marine training vessel in Galveston, and finally to its current status as an artificial coral reef/floating classroom in the Gulf of Mexico.

Add these books to your summer reading list, and learn more about maritime history and Aggie involvement. It will give you one more reason to take pride in Texas A&M.
By: Madeline Loving

Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Father's Day: More Than a Tie

Father’s Day is on its way! Before you run to the store and pick up another tie or t-shirt with “#1 Dad”sprawled across the front, why don’t you get him something he can actually enjoy in his free time? 
Not every father is an enthusiastic novel reader—that’s why we’ve compiled a diverse list of various topics and genres of books. From the history buff, the outdoor enthusiast, or the DIY adventurer, there is sure to be a book that your dad would love!
Skip the tie this year and opt for something your hardworking dad can have an excuse to sit back, relax, and enjoy.

Here’s our top 5 picks for Father’s Day:

Texas Garden Almanac (Texas A&M University Publishing Press, 2007)- Give your father some new ideas for gardening projects with Doug Welsh’s Texas Garden Almanac. A detailed month-by-month  guide for the DIY dad, this useful reference book contains information on everything garden-related; from  fruit, vegetable, and flower gardening, to plant care and garden upkeep, as well as how to design gardens. 

Rudder: From Leader to Legend (Texas A&M University Publishing Press, 2011) - The first comprehensive biography of James Earl Rudder includes both his heroism in World War II and his contributions to Texas A&M University. Thomas Hatfield gives a detailed accounting of Rudder’s leadership and initiative both on the battlefield and in the boardroom. 

Texas Post Office Murals (Texas A&M University Publishing Press, 2004)- Texas Post Office Murals presents a unique and forgotten history of a program born out of the Great Depression that sought to give artists work. These popular artists created post office murals that reflected American dreams and ideals, which spurred hope during harsh economic times.  Filled with 115 photographs and a brief history of each, the Texas Post Office Murals is a good coffee-table book.

Unprecedented Power: Jesse Jones, Capitalism, and the Common Good (Texas A&M University Publishing Press, 2011) - Perfect for fathers interested in American business or Texas history. Steven Fenberg writes about Jesse Jones, a man raised on a tobacco farm with only 8 years of education, who became a powerful businessman who saved many of Houston’s banks during the Great Depression and built the city’s tallest skyscrapers at the time. He then went on to Washington, where he became head of the Reconstruction Finance Corp.

Exploring the Brazos River: From Beginning to End (Texas A&M University Publishing Press, 2011)- Good for the outdoorsy, adventurous father. Kimmel describes the landscape, ecolog, and flows of one of the oldest rivers in Texas. The book is full of stunning, vibrant photography of the beauty of the Brazos River landscape, as well as detailed maps and descriptions.
By: Madeline Loving

Monday, June 11, 2012

30th Anniversary of Westminster Speech

Thirty years ago in a now-famous speech given at Westminster Palace, President Ronald Reagan argued that the West shouldn't just criticize or contain Soviet behavior but also challenge the basic legitimacy of the Soviet system.

The Washington Post commemorated the anniversary of the speech in an editorial Friday, adding the "ash heap of history" phrase was one Reagan personally wrote into the address, according to Reagan at Westminster: Foreshadowing the End of the Cold War (TAMU Press, 2011).
Read more here.

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Ike Devastation to Houston Could Have Been Worse

The Houston Chronicle this weekend featured an article depicting the dangers of a Category 4 storm in the Houston-Galveston area. Experts predict such a storm could cause $374 billion in damages in Harris County. These damages only include those caused by wind—flooding is another issue. If a hurricane were to strike the Galveston Coast directly, its wind damage could affect neighboring counties for miles.

With hurricane season just around the corner it’s important to be aware of the possible dangers associated with them. In September 2008, Hurricane Ike smashed into the Gulf Coast, killing 20 people and causing $25 billion in damages. This hurricane initiated the largest search-and-rescue in United States history, as well as increased awareness for these unavoidable natural disasters.

In Lessons from Hurricane Ike (Texas A&M University Press, 2012) edited by Philip Bedient, the damages to the Houston-Galveston area are examined further. Bedient, a Herman Brown Professor of Engineering at Rice University, directs the research team at the Severe Storm Prediction, Education and Evacuation from Disasters (SSPEED) Center. Incorporating SSPEED’s research with colorful maps and vivid photos, Bedient presents a straight-forward read on predicting and preparing for hurricanes.

“Ike revealed just how vulnerable the Houston-Galveston region is to a major storm, but Ike also helped us visualize the ‘worst-case’ storm scenario from our region,” said Bedient. “The main lesson from Ike is that we can avoid catastrophic damage from future storms if we choose to act.”

Although the last direct hit to Galveston was in 1915, it doesn’t mean it’s safe from further hurricane damage. Precautions are necessary for the upcoming summer of hurricane season. According to Bedient, if Hurricane Ike had hit 50 miles down the Texas Coast, damages would have quadrupled.

Lessons from Hurricane Ike shows that in the past decade there has been both increased hurricane activity and a higher incidence of powerful storms. Bedient gives a history of hurricanes affecting the Gulf Coast and methods for predicting and preparing for them. There is no telling what size storm will hit the Gulf Coast this summer; being informed and aware is necessary.
By: Madeline Loving